Sunday, May 16, 2010

Aquario Natural

This is a great place to visit if you want to go snorkeling. Here, you will see a vast variety of wonderful and vibrant tropical fishes. You can also visit Rio Sucuri where you will surely be captivated by the wonderful sight of its waters and the clear skies.
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The Amazon:The World's Largest Rain Forest

The Amazon River Basin is home to the largest rainforest on Earth. The basin -- roughly the size of the forty-eight contiguous United States -- covers some 40% of the South American continent and includes parts of eight South American countries: Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, and Suriname, as well as French Guiana, a department of France.

Reflecting environmental conditions as well as past human influence, the Amazon is made up of a mosaic of ecosystems and vegetation types including rainforests, seasonal forests, deciduous forests, flooded forests, and savannas. The basin is drained by the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of discharge, and the second longest river in the world after the Nile. The river is made up of over 1,100 tributaries, 17 of which are longer than 1000 miles, and two of which (the Negro and the Madeira) are larger, in terms of volume, than the Congo (formerly the Zaire) river. The river system is the lifeline of the forest and its history plays an important part in the development of its rainforests. 


The World's Largest Rainforests
1. Amazon Basin, South America
2. Congo Basin, Africa
3. Indonesian Archipelago, Southeast Asia

At one time Amazon River flowed westward, perhaps as part of a proto-Congo (Zaire) river system from the interior of present day Africa when the continents were joined as part of Gondwana. Fifteen million years ago, the Andes were formed by the collision of the South American plate with the Nazca plate. The rise of the Andes and the linkage of the Brazilian and Guyana bedrock shields, blocked the river and caused the Amazon to become a vast inland sea. Gradually this inland sea became a massive swampy, freshwater lake and the marine inhabitants adapted to life in freshwater. For example, over 20 species of stingray, most closely related to those found in the Pacific Ocean, can be found today in the freshwaters of the Amazon.

About ten million years ago, waters worked through the sandstone to the west and the Amazon began to flow eastward. At this time the Amazon rainforest was born. During the Ice Age, sea levels dropped and the great Amazon lake rapidly drained and became a river. Three million years later, the ocean level receded enough to expose the Central American isthmus and allow mass migration of mammal species between the Americas.

The Ice Ages caused tropical rainforest around the world to retreat. Although debated, it is believed that much of the Amazon reverted to savanna and montane forest (see chapter 3-Ice Ages and Glaciation). Savanna divided patches of rainforest into "islands" and separated existing species for periods long enough to allow genetic differentiation (a similar rainforest retreat took place in Africa. Delta core samples suggest that even the mighty Congo watershed was void of rainforest at this time). When the ice ages ended, the forest was again joined and the species that were once one had diverged significantly enough to be constitute designation as separate species, adding to the tremendous diversity of the region. About 6000 years ago, sea levels rose about 130 meters, once again causing the river to be inundated like a long, giant freshwater lake. 


How large is the Amazon rainforest?
In Brazil, the Amazon covers surface area of 4,100,000 square kilometers (1,583,000 square miles), of which around 3.4 million sq km (1.3 million sq mi) are presently forested. Accounting for parts of the Amazon outside of Brazil, the total extent of the Amazon is estimated at 8,235,430 sq km (3,179,715 sq mi). or comparison, the land area of the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii) is 9,629,091 square kilometers (3,717,811).

In total, the Amazon River drains about 6,915,000 square kilometers (2,722,000 square miles), or roughly 40 percent of South America.
Today the Amazon River is the most voluminous river on Earth, eleven times the volume of the Mississippi, and drains an area equivalent in size to the United States. During the high water season, the river's mouth may be 300 miles wide and every day up to 500 billion cubic feet of water (5,787,037 cubic feet/sec) flow into the Atlantic. For reference, the Amazon's daily freshwater discharge into the Atlantic is enough to supply New York City's freshwater needs for nine years. The force of the current -- from sheer water volume alone -- causes Amazon River water to continue flowing 125 miles out to sea before mixing with Atlantic salt water. Early sailors could drink freshwater out of the ocean before sighting the South American continent.

The river current carries tons of suspended sediment all the way from the Andes and gives the river a characteristic muddy whitewater appearance. It is calculated that 106 million cubic feet of suspended sediment are swept into the ocean each day. The result from the silt deposited at the mouth of the Amazon is Majaro island, a river island about the size of Switzerland.

Friday, May 7, 2010

Great Wall of China

The Great wall of china as called is the largest building construction ever carried out, running to around 6,400 Km east to west from gulf of china to the yellow sea to a point in Central Asia. The construction of this fortification dates from 4th century B.C. shih Huang-ti in 214 B.C.

First Construction of the Great Wall

The first emperor of United China connected the discontinuous walls with watch towers with was used to guard as the rampart. It was mainly built against Hsiung-nu or called he Huns. The wall was constructed partly of masonry and partly of earth and was faced with brick in the eastern portion. It was again rebuilt in the 15th and 16th century. The basic Wall is 30feet height and the towers are 40m high. The great wall lies from 39.49 degrees North to 98.18 degrees East. The Yen Mountains are the world famous ones and has peak up to 4,900 feet above main sea level. The great wall has it crest over these mountains in a zigzag manner. According to the words of the Astronauts and space researchers, the only clear and visible one from the moon on earth is only “The Great Wall”. A statement said “The Great wall is the only visible thing from Satellite”.

Chineese Civilization:
China was the only country with the oldest civilization and it led up to 2000 Years from 221 B.C. to 1911 A.D. and remained as a united one until the series of powerful rules. The great walls construction was carried on only during this period and the main reason why the wall bent at some occasions was this because the capitals were shifted, the borders were changed and mainly the country was captured by fierce tribes of the period including the Mongols and however for the most of the history of china, it was the only developed country of that period in art and technology only because of its construction of the great wall. The inventions of paper, porcelain and gunpowder were the main during the construction of the great wall. The inventions of paper, porcelain and gun power were the main construction items used during the construction of great wall. After the construction of the great wall the Qin empire was the first empire to be protected by the great wall which is now the northern and eastern china. The wall was built there as a defense against the Hostile tribal attacks from central Asia. The Qin warriors used to walk on the walls as security and the warriors from the great wall attacked the enemies and this was mainly the reason for the expansion of their empire. The great wall is still now the longest man made structure on earth. It was built before 2,200 years with about 3,00,000 slaves. More than 90% of the slaves who built the great wall were brought from Macao a tiny peninsula in the southeast china and was a Portuguese colony at that time. It was returned back to china in 1999. It was a famous tourist center at that time and cheap labor was available there.

Wednesday, May 5, 2010

Darjeeling Tourist Guide

 Darjeeling is famous for its tea. It's a hill resort in West-Bengal, and for those who are a bit tired of the hustle and bustle of Calcutta it is the ideal place to go. Old colonial style mansions and lush green hills are waiting for you.

Darjeeling is one of the most beautiful Hill Stations in India coming under the state of West Bengal.  The view of Kanchenjunga, and other ranges of the Himalayas is the attraction of this little city. Darjeeling can be reached either by Air and the nearest Airport is Bagdogra. By train, you will have to travel overnight from Kolkatta at alight at New Jalpaiguri, then take the famous Toy Train which is running for more than a Century. Winding itself into the hills there is a fantastic history behind the laying of tracks for this rail route. Darjeeling can also be reached on road by jeep, van or car. But the rail route is the most enjoyable.

We were told by the Railway authorities that during the British period in India, Darjeeling was their attraction to spend in summers and they decided to lay the railway track from the plains to the hill top. The distance was less and the height disproportionate.

Tourist guide Edmonton

Edmonton, the capital of Alberta, is the state’s second largest city. With a population of about 800,000, it is often referred to as ‘The City of Champions’. It houses the West Edmonton Hall, which is the largest shopping mall in the world.
The climate in Edmonton is typically pleasant and sunny. Summers are mild and it’s known to be one of Canada’s sunniest cities. The city’s four seasons are quite unpredictable. Snowfall starts in the month of November.
After being hit by a tornado in 1987, the city recovered and was on the path to prosperity by the late 1990s. The main focus of the economy in recent times has been oil and gas.
Edmonton was incorporated as a township in 2004.

Tourist guide Banff

Banff, in Alberta, is an important cultural as well as commercial centre. It is located in the famous Banff National Park.

Banff, with a population of around 8000 inhabitants, bustles with a host of cultural activities.
The climatic conditions in Banff are inconstant; perhaps one of the reasons for this is its high elevation. Most of summer sees long days and average temperatures. Autumn and winter are more pleasant seasons. Banff receives maximum rainfall in June.

Banff is the hub of numerous cultural activities. It is the main economic centre of the Banff National Park. With 11,000 years of strong and elegant history, Banff was formed as a township in 1990.

Tourist guide Moscow

Moscow is the capital of Russia. The bustling metropolis, located on the Moskva River, is the most populous city in Europe.
The city is well connected with all possible modes of transport. Apart from having four airports, there are two water terminals for local water transport, intercity and inter-country bus services and ferries, and the western railway hub for the Trans-Siberian railway which is the world’s longest rail line.

When one mentions ‘Moscow’, you get the image of a whole city wrapped in a thick blanket of snow. Although the city has cold winters with temperatures dropping as low as –12°C, summer (July–August) is warm and mild with temperatures rising up to 25°C.

The metropolis has a population of 11 million people. It is considered as the world’s most expensive city for expatriates.